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The Terminator, hunter killer machines - that will not stop



The Terminator hunter killer from the future - that is not set.



The Terminator is a 1984 American science fiction action film, written and directed by James Cameron. It stars Arnold Schwarzenegger as the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton), whose unborn son will one day save mankind from extinction by Skynet, a hostile artificial intelligence in a post-apocalyptic future. Kyle Reese (Michael Biehn) is a soldier sent back in time to protect Sarah. The screenplay is credited to Cameron and producer Gale Anne Hurd, while co-writer William Wisher Jr. received an "additional dialogue" credit.

Cameron stated he devised the premise of the film from a fever dream he experienced during the release of his first film, Piranha II: The Spawning (1982), in Rome, and developed the concept in collaboration with Wisher. He sold the rights to the project to fellow New World Pictures alumna Hurd on the condition that she would produce the film only if he were to direct it; Hurd eventually secured a distribution deal with Orion Pictures, while executive producers John Daly and Derek Gibson of Hemdale Film Corporation were instrumental in setting up the film's financing and production. Originally approached by Orion for the role of Reese, Schwarzenegger agreed to play the title character after befriending Cameron. Filming, which took place mostly at night on location in Los Angeles, was delayed because of Schwarzenegger's commitments to Conan the Destroyer (1984), during which Cameron found time to work on the scripts for Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985) and Aliens (1986). The film's special effects, which included miniatures and stop-motion animation, were created by a team of artists led by Stan Winston and Gene Warren Jr.

Defying low pre-release expectations, The Terminator topped the United States box office for two weeks, eventually grossing $78.3 million against a modest $6.4 million budget. It is credited with launching Cameron's film career and solidifying Schwarzenegger's status as a leading man. The film's success led to a franchise consisting of several sequels, a television series, comic books, novels and video games. In 2008, The Terminator was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". 



Two men arrive in 1984 Los Angeles, having time traveled from 2029. One is a cybernetic assassin known as the Terminator, programmed to hunt and kill a woman named Sarah Connor. The other is a human soldier named Kyle Reese intent on stopping it. They both steal guns and clothing. The Terminator systematically kills women bearing its target's name, having found their addresses in a telephone directory. It tracks the last Sarah Connor, its actual target, to a nightclub, but Reese rescues her. The pair steal a car and escape with the Terminator pursuing them in a stolen police car.

As they hide in a parking lot, Reese explains to Sarah that an artificially intelligent defense network known as Skynet, created by Cyberdyne Systems, will become self-aware in the near future and trigger a global nuclear war in order to exterminate the human race. Sarah's future son John will rally the survivors and lead a successful resistance movement against Skynet and its army of machines. On the verge of the resistance's victory, Skynet sent the Terminator back in time to kill Sarah and prevent John from being born. The Terminator is an efficient and relentless killing machine with perfect voice-mimicking ability and a powerful metal endoskeleton covered by living tissue that disguises it as a human.

Reese and Sarah are apprehended by police after another encounter with the Terminator. The Terminator attacks the police station, killing police officers and hunting for Sarah. Reese and Sarah escape, steal another car and take refuge in a motel, where they assemble pipe bombs and plan their next move. Reese admits that he has adored Sarah since he saw her in a photograph John gave him, and that he traveled through time out of love for her. Reciprocating his feelings, Sarah kisses him and they have sex, conceiving John.

The Terminator locates Sarah by intercepting a call intended for her mother. She and Reese escape the motel in a pickup truck while it pursues them on a motorcycle. In the ensuing chase, Reese is wounded by gunfire while throwing pipe bombs at the Terminator. Sarah knocks the Terminator off its motorcycle but loses control of the truck, which flips over. The Terminator, now bloodied and badly damaged, hijacks a tank truck and attempts to run down Sarah, but Reese slides a pipe bomb into the tanker's hose tube, causing an explosion that burns the flesh from the Terminator's endoskeleton. It pursues them into a factory, where Reese activates machinery to confuse it. He jams his final pipe bomb into its midsection, blowing it apart at the cost of his life. Its still-functional torso grabs Sarah, but she breaks free and lures it into a hydraulic press, crushing and finally destroying it.

Months later, Sarah, pregnant with John, travels through Mexico, recording audio tapes to pass on to him. At a gas station, a boy takes a polaroid of her and she buys it. It is the same photograph that John will one day give to Reese. 


For the role of Kyle Reese, Orion wanted a star whose popularity was rising in the United States but who also would have foreign appeal. Orion co-founder Mike Medavoy had met Arnold Schwarzenegger and sent his agent the script for The Terminator. Cameron was uncertain about casting Schwarzenegger as Reese as he felt he would need someone even more famous to play the Terminator. Sylvester Stallone and Mel Gibson both turned down the Terminator role. The studio suggested O. J. Simpson but Cameron did not feel that Simpson, at that time, would be believable as a killer.

Cameron agreed to meet with Schwarzenegger and devised a plan to avoid casting him; he would pick a fight with him and return to Hemdale and find him unfit for the role. However, Cameron was entertained by Schwarzenegger, who would talk about how the villain should be played. Cameron began sketching his face on a notepad and asked Schwarzenegger to stop talking and remain still. After the meeting, Cameron returned to Daly saying Schwarzenegger would not play Reese but that "he'd make a hell of a Terminator".

Schwarzenegger was not as excited by the film; during an interview on the set of Conan the Destroyer, an interviewer asked him about a pair of shoes he had, which belonged to the wardrobe for The Terminator. Schwarzenegger responded, "Oh, some shit movie I'm doing, take a couple weeks." He recounted in his memoir, Total Recall, that he was initially hesitant, but thought that playing a robot in a contemporary film would be a challenging change of pace from Conan the Barbarian and that the film was low-profile enough that it would not damage his career if it were unsuccessful. In a later interview with GQ Magazine, he admitted that he and the studio regarded it as just another B action movie, since "The year before came out Exterminator, now it was the Terminator and what else is gonna be next, type of thing". It was only when he saw 20 minutes of the first edit did he realize that "this is really intense, this is wild, I don't think I've ever seen anything like this before" and realized that "this could be bigger than we all think". To prepare for the role, Schwarzenegger spent three months training with weapons to be able to use them and feel comfortable around them. Schwarzenegger speaks only 17 lines in the film, and fewer than 100 words. Cameron said that "Somehow, even his accent worked ... It had a strange synthesized quality, like they hadn't gotten the voice thing quite worked out."

Various other actors were suggested for the role of Reese, including rock musician Sting. Others who were considered for Reese, included Christopher Reeve, Mel Gibson, Matt Dillon, Kurt Russell, Treat Williams, Tommy Lee Jones, Scott Glenn, Michael O'Keefe and Bruce Springsteen. Cameron chose Michael Biehn. Biehn, who had recently seen Taxi Driver and had aspirations about acting alongside the likes of Al Pacino, Robert De Niro and Robert Redford, was originally skeptical, feeling the film was silly. After meeting with Cameron, Biehn changed his mind. Hurd stated that "almost everyone else who came in from the audition was so tough that you just never believed that there was gonna be this human connection between Sarah Connor and Kyle Reese. They have very little time to fall in love. A lot of people came in and just could not pull it off." To get into Reese's character, Biehn studied the Polish resistance movement in World War II.

In the first pages of the script, Sarah Connor is described as "19, small and delicate features. Pretty in a flawed, accessible way. She doesn't stop the party when she walks in, but you'd like to get to know her. Her vulnerable quality masks a strength even she doesn't know exists." Lisa Langlois was offered the role but turned it down due to her already shooting The Slugger's Wife. Jennifer Jason Leigh, Melissa Sue Anderson, and Jessica Harper were also considered for the role of Sarah Connor. Cameron cast Linda Hamilton, who had just finished filming Children of the Corn. Rosanna Arquette and Lea Thompson also auditioned for the role. Cameron found a role for Lance Henriksen as Vukovich, as Henriksen had been essential to finding finances for the film. For the special effects shots, Cameron wanted Dick Smith, who had worked on The Godfather and Taxi Driver. Smith did not take Cameron's offer and suggested his friend Stan Winston.



- Arnold Schwarzenegger as the Terminator, a cybernetic android disguised as a human being sent back in time to assassinate Sarah Connor.


- Michael Biehn as Kyle Reese, a human Resistance fighter sent back in time to protect Sarah.


- Linda Hamilton as Sarah Connor, a young diner waitress and the Terminator's target, who is soon to be the mother of the future Resistance leader John Connor.


- Paul Winfield as Ed Traxler, a police Lieutenant who tries to protect Sarah.


- Lance Henriksen as Vukovich, a member of the LAPD.


- Bess Motta as Ginger, Sarah's roommate whom the T-800 murders after mistaking her for Sarah.


- Rick Rossovich as Matt, Ginger's boyfriend whom the T-800 also murdered.


- Earl Boen as Dr. Silberman, a criminal psychologist.

Additional actors included Shawn Schepps as Nancy, Sarah's co-worker at the diner; Dick Miller as a gun shop clerk; professional bodybuilder Franco Columbu as a Terminator in the future; Bill Paxton and Brian Thompson as punks whom the Terminator confronts and kills; Marianne Muellerleile as one of the other women with the name "Sarah Connor" whom the Terminator shoots; Rick Aiello as a bouncer at Tech-Noir; and Bill Wisher as the police officer who reports a hit-and-run felony on Reese, only to be knocked unconscious and have his car stolen by the Terminator soon thereafter. 










In Rome, Italy, during the release of Piranha II: The Spawning (1982), director Cameron fell ill and had a dream about a metallic torso holding kitchen knives dragging itself from an explosion. Inspired by director John Carpenter, who had made the slasher film Halloween (1978) on a low budget, Cameron used the dream as a "launching pad" to write a slasher-style film. Cameron's agent disliked the early concept of the horror film and requested that he work on something else. After this, Cameron dismissed his agent.

Cameron returned to Pomona, California, and stayed at the home of science fiction writer Randall Frakes, where he wrote the draft for The Terminator. Cameron's influences included 1950s science fiction films, the 1960s fantasy television series The Outer Limits, and contemporary films such as The Driver (1978) and Mad Max 2 (1981). To translate the draft into a script, Cameron enlisted his friend Bill Wisher, who had a similar approach to storytelling. Cameron gave Wisher scenes involving Sarah Connor and the police department to write. As Wisher lived far from Cameron, the two communicated ideas by recording tapes of what they wrote by telephone. Frakes and Wisher would later write the US-released novelization of the movie.

The initial outline of the script involved two Terminators being sent to the past. The first was similar to the Terminator in the film, while the second was made of liquid metal and could not be destroyed with conventional weaponry. Cameron felt that the technology of the time was unable to create the liquid Terminator, and shelved the idea until the appearance of the T-1000 character in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991).

Gale Anne Hurd, who had worked at New World Pictures as Roger Corman's assistant, showed interest in the project. Cameron sold the rights for The Terminator to Hurd for one dollar with the promise that she would produce it only if Cameron was to direct it. Hurd suggested edits to the script and took a screenwriting credit in the film, though Cameron stated that she "did no actual writing at all". Cameron and Hurd had friends who worked with Corman previously and who were working at Orion Pictures (now part of MGM). Orion agreed to distribute the film if Cameron could get financial backing elsewhere. The script was picked up by John Daly, chairman and president of Hemdale Film Corporation. Daly and his executive vice president and head of production Derek Gibson became executive producers of the project.

Cameron wanted his pitch for Daly to finalize the deal and had his friend Lance Henriksen show up to the meeting early dressed and acting like the Terminator. Henriksen, wearing a leather jacket, fake cuts on his face, and gold foil on his teeth, kicked open the door to the office and then sat in a chair. Cameron arrived shortly and then relieved the staff from Henriksen's act. Daly was impressed by the screenplay and Cameron's sketches and passion for the film. In late 1982, Daly agreed to back the film with help from HBO and Orion. The Terminator was originally budgeted at $4 million and later raised to $6.5 million. Aside from Hemdale, Pacific Western Productions, Euro Film Funding and Cinema '84 have been credited as production companies after the film's release.


Filming for The Terminator was set to begin in early 1983 in Toronto, but was halted when producer Dino De Laurentiis applied an option in Schwarzenegger's contract that would make him unavailable for nine months while he was filming Conan the Destroyer. During the waiting period, Cameron was contracted to write the script for Rambo: First Blood Part II, refined the Terminator script, and met with producers David Giler and Walter Hill to discuss a sequel to Alien, which became Aliens, released in 1986.

There was limited interference from Orion Pictures. Two suggestions Orion put forward included the addition of a canine android for Reese, which Cameron refused, and to strengthen the love interest between Sarah and Reese, which Cameron accepted. To create the Terminator's look, Winston and Cameron passed sketches back and forth, eventually deciding on a design nearly identical to Cameron's original drawing in Rome. Winston had a team of seven artists work for six months to create a Terminator puppet; it was first molded in clay, then plaster reinforced with steel ribbing. These pieces were then sanded, painted and then chrome-plated. Winston sculpted reproduction of Schwarzenegger's face in several poses out of silicone, clay and plaster.

The sequences set in 2029 and the stop-motion scenes were developed by Fantasy II, a special effects company headed by Gene Warren Jr. A stop-motion model is used in several scenes in the film involving the Terminator's skeletal frame. Cameron wanted to convince the audience that the model of the structure was capable of doing what they saw Schwarzenegger doing. To allow this, a scene was filmed of Schwarzenegger injured and limping away; this limp made it easier for the model to imitate Schwarzenegger.

One of the guns seen in the film and on the film's poster was an AMT Longslide pistol modified by Ed Reynolds from SureFire to include a laser sight. Both non-functioning and functioning versions of the prop were created. At the time the movie was made, diode lasers were not available; because of the high power requirement, the helium–neon laser in the sight used an external power supply that Schwarzenegger had to activate manually. Reynolds states that his only compensation for the project was promotional material for the film.

In March 1984, the film began production in Los Angeles. Cameron felt that with Schwarzenegger on the set, the style of the film changed, explaining that "the movie took on a larger-than-life sheen. I just found myself on the set doing things I didn't think I would do – scenes that were just purely horrific that just couldn't be, because now they were too flamboyant." Most of The Terminator's action scenes were filmed at night, which led to tight filming schedules before sunrise. A week before filming started, Linda Hamilton sprained her ankle, leading to a production change whereby the scenes in which Hamilton needed to run occurred as late as the filming schedule allowed. Hamilton's ankle was taped every day and she spent most of the film production in pain.

Schwarzenegger tried to have the iconic line "I'll be back" changed as he had difficulty pronouncing the word I'll. Cameron refused to change the line to "I will be back", so Schwarzenegger worked to say the line as written the best he could. He would later say the line in numerous films throughout his career.

After production finished on The Terminator, some post-production shots were needed. These included scenes showing the Terminator outside Sarah Connor's apartment, Reese being zipped into a body bag, and the Terminator's head being crushed in a press. The final scene where Sarah is driving down a highway was filmed without a permit. Cameron and Hurd convinced an officer who confronted them that they were making a UCLA student film.


The Terminator soundtrack was composed and performed on synthesizer by Brad Fiedel. Fiedel was with the Gorfaine/Schwartz Agency, where a new agent, Beth Donahue, found that Cameron was working on The Terminator and sent him a cassette of Fiedel's music. Fiedel was invited to a screening of the film with Cameron and Hurd. Hurd was not certain about having Fiedel compose the score, as he had only worked in television, not theatrical films. Fiedel convinced the two by showing them an experimental piece he had worked on, thinking that "You know, I'm going to play this for him because it's really dark and I think it's interesting for him." The song convinced Hurd and Cameron to hire him.

Fiedel said his score reflected "a mechanical man and his heartbeat". Almost all the music was performed live. The Terminator theme is used in the opening credits and appears in various points, such as a slowed version when Reese dies, and a piano version during the love scene. It has been described as "haunting", with a "deceptively simple" melody recorded on a Prophet-10 synthesizer. It is in the unusual time signature of 13/16, which arose when Fiedel experimented with rhythms and accidentally created an incomplete loop on his sequencer; Fiedel liked the "herky-jerky" "propulsiveness". Fiedel created music for when Reese and Connor escape from the police station that would be appropriate for a "heroic moment". Cameron turned down this theme, as he believed it would lose the audience's excitement.


Contemporary critical responses to The Terminator were mixed. Variety praised the film, calling it a "blazing, cinematic comic book, full of virtuoso moviemaking, terrific momentum, solid performances and a compelling story ... Schwarzenegger is perfectly cast in a machine-like portrayal that requires only a few lines of dialog." Richard Corliss of Time magazine said that the film had "plenty of tech-noir savvy to keep infidels and action fans satisfied." Time placed The Terminator on its "10 Best" list for 1984.

The Los Angeles Times called the film "a crackling thriller full of all sorts of gory treats ... loaded with fuel-injected chase scenes, clever special effects and a sly humor." The Milwaukee Journal gave the film three stars, calling it "the most chilling science fiction thriller since Alien".[68] A review in Orange Coast magazine stated that "the distinguishing virtue of The Terminator is its relentless tension. Right from the start it's all action and violence with no time taken to set up the story ... It's like a streamlined Dirty Harry movie – no exposition at all; just guns, guns and more guns." In the May 1985 issue of Cinefantastique it was referred to as a film that "manages to be both derivative and original at the same time ... not since The Road Warrior has the genre exhibited so much exuberant carnage" and "an example of science fiction/horror at its best ... Cameron's no-nonsense approach will make him a sought-after commodity". In the United Kingdom the Monthly Film Bulletin praised the film's script, special effects, design and Schwarzenegger's performance. Colin Greenland reviewed The Terminator for Imagine magazine, and stated that it was "a gripping sf horror movie". He continued, "Linda Hamilton is admirable as the woman in peril who discovers her own strength to survive, and Arnold Schwarzenegger is eerily wonderful as the unstoppable cyborg."

Other reviews criticized the film's violence and story-telling quality. Janet Maslin of The New York Times opined that the film was a "B-movie with flair. Much of it ... has suspense and personality, and only the obligatory mayhem becomes dull. There is far too much of the latter, in the form of car chases, messy shootouts and Mr. Schwarzenegger's slamming brutally into anything that gets in his way." The Pittsburgh Press wrote a negative review, calling the film "just another of the films drenched in artsy ugliness like Streets of Fire and Blade Runner". The Chicago Tribune gave the film two stars, adding that "at times it's horrifyingly violent and suspenseful at others it giggles at itself. This schizoid style actually helps, providing a little humor just when the sci-fi plot turns too sluggish or the dialogue too hokey." The Newhouse News Service called the film a "lurid, violent, pretentious piece of claptrap". Scottish author Gilbert Adair called the film "repellent to the last degree", charging it with "insidious Nazification" and having an "appeal rooted in an unholy compound of fascism, fashion and fascination".


In 1991, Richard Schickel of Entertainment Weekly reviewed the film, giving it an "A" rating, writing that "what originally seemed a somewhat inflated, if generous and energetic, big picture, now seems quite a good little film". He called it "one of the most original movies of the 1980s and seems likely to remain one of the best sci-fi films ever made." In 1998, Halliwell's Film Guide described The Terminator as "slick, rather nasty but undeniably compelling comic book adventures". Film4 gave it five stars, calling it the "sci-fi action-thriller that launched the careers of James Cameron and Arnold Schwarzenegger into the stratosphere. Still endlessly entertaining." TV Guide gave the film four stars, referring to it as an "amazingly effective picture that becomes doubly impressive when one considers its small budget ... For our money, this film is far superior to its mega-grossing mega-budgeted sequel." Empire gave it five stars, calling it "as chillingly efficient in exacting thrills from its audience as its titular character is in executing its targets." The film database Allmovie gave it five stars, saying that it "established James Cameron as a master of action, special effects, and quasi-mythic narrative intrigue, while turning Arnold Schwarzenegger into the hard-body star of the 1980s." Alan Jones awarded it five stars out of five for Radio Times, writing that "maximum excitement is generated from the first frame and the dynamic thrills are maintained right up to the nerve-jangling climax. Wittily written with a nice eye for sharp detail, it's hard sci-fi action all the way." Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian awarded it five stars out of five, stating that "on the strength of this picture [...] Cameron could stand toe to toe with Carpenter and Spielberg. Sadly, it spawned a string of pointless and inferior sequels, but the first Terminator [...] stands up tremendously well with outrageous verve and blistering excitement."












The franchise encompasses a series of science fiction action films, comics, novels, and additional media, concerning a total war between Skynet's synthetic intelligence – a self-aware military machine network – and John Connor's Resistance forces comprising the survivors of the human race. Skynet's most famous products in its genocidal goals are the various terminator models, such as the T-800, who was portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger from the original Terminator film in 1984. By 2010, the franchise had generated $3 billion in revenue.


It was in the early 1980’s that Cameron had a vision: a nightmarish view of the future. On The Terminator Blu-ray, he describes how it came to him while he was working in Rome. [Read on here…]

“I was sick at the time. I had a high fever.” Cameron recalled. “I was just lying on the bed thinking and came up with all this bizarre imagery... I think also the idea that because I was in a foreign city by myself and I felt very dissociated from humanity in general, it was very easy to project myself into these two characters from the future who were out of sync, out of time, out of place.”

That helped the writer in Cameron to create two unique characters, the robot Terminator and the human soldier, Reese. Their differences made them interesting beyond the typical action flick. Add a vulnerable but believable heroine in Sarah Connor and you have a movie that has aged well.

The vision was so vivid that Cameron even imagined how the robot moved and made it part of the film. “What I found effective on Terminator was to do a slow-motion build-up, or to subtly segway into slow-motion where you almost don’t realize it, and it becomes a dreamlike pace or that dilation of time that you experience when you’re in a traffic accident and it’s happening and you can’t stop it and time seems to stretch,” he said.

The threat of nuclear war was on people’s minds in the early 1980s. Cameron used the form of robots to deal with the subject of war. The first movie turned out to be realistic looking not only because of its low budget but also because it kept things grounded in a real world. The T-800 looked and seemed real compared to the fascinating but more advanced robots to follow. The tech noir visuals were also instrumental in creating a world we lived in at the time.

The ending of the first movie stayed true to its realistic story with Reese sacrificing himself to save Sarah, who in turn, finds the courage to terminate the robot when it refuses to stop trying to kill her. There was a hopeful yet ambiguous ending to the story.

What started as a vision in the Canadian filmmaker’s head is now part of the Library of Congress for preservation in the American National Film Registry as “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant.” No one, not even Cameron, could have foreseen that future back in 1983 when the film was being shot in Los Angeles.

By the time Terminator 2: Judgment Day came out in 1991, the world was a little different. The Berlin Wall had come down. There seemed to be more hope. The second movie showed the best relationship between boy and machine, a Terminator that becomes a father figure. On the flip side, Cameron made its heroine into more like the machine she’s trying to stop. That included a liquid type of Terminator that could imitate humans. How apropos.

At the end of T2, the war has stopped and there is hope for the future. By the time Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines was released in 2003, so much had changed in our society. Fear had taken a stranglehold, especially after the events of 9/11. Despite the best efforts by John Connor, Kate Brewster and the good Terminator, Judgment Day occurs anyway, ending the third movie on a downbeat note which reflects the mood early in the new century.

Six years later, there were plenty of unknowns, including the worst recession in seven decades, high unemployment, and a never ending war in the Middle East. So Terminator Salvation seemed stuck in a future that may or may not happen and an open-ended resolution where one big victory doesn’t mean much in the endless war against the machines. At least John Connor is active and becoming the leader spoken of in the very first movie – even if he needed the heart of a hybrid man/machine to live another day. Only to become the villain in the new Terminator Genisys. It may have been a neat twist to the franchise but Linda Hamilton’s transformation from scared waitress to tough robotic hunter in the first two films was much more interesting.

The fifth film in the series turns and twists all over the previous timelines. We live in confusing times, so perhaps the story had to become just as convoluted? Or were the filmmakers being ironic when Schwarzenegger said “I’m old, not obsolete?”

The ending of Terminator Genisys may reflect society’s hope today that things will get better by itself. That “the future is not set. There is no fate but what we make for ourselves.”














'Cleopatra - The Mummy' was the proposed sequel to 'Kulo-Luna.' Kulo-Luna, the first script of the John Storm franchise (for which a draft is available to studios and actor's agents). The John Storm franchise is a series of ocean awareness adventures, featuring the incredible solar powered trimaran: Elizabeth Swann. Cleopatra The Mummy, could be the pilot, with Kulo-Luna, or Treasure Island the prequel or sequel. The order of production could be to suit identified gaps in entertainment, in any particular year. Equally, the trilogy, could be adapted for network television.








Queen Cleopatra's royal barge, last of the Pharoahs     Egyptian royal barge, sails and oars for propulsion     Pharoah Khufu's royal barge, solar boat for the afterlife     Ancient Egyptian royal funeral barge, or solar boat



Queen Cleopatra's royal barge. She was last of the Pharaoh queens, an avid sailor and believer in the afterlife




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